What is Qurbani?
Qurbani (also known as Udhiyah) is the sacrifice of an animal during the festival Eid ul Adha. The significance of this relates to the event that took place during the time of Prophet Ibrahim عليه السلام. This is where, in a dream, he was commanded to sacrifice his son for Allah. As a faithful servant of Allah, he set out to sacrifice his beloved son. We must remember Ibrahim waited many years to finally have a son. He was 86 years old when his son was born so one can imagine the love he had for his son. And to now sacrifice him!?
Lets read about the verses of Qurbani in the Quran first. In Surah Saffat, Allah says,
102: And when he reached with him [the age of] exertion, he said, “O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I [must] sacrifice you, so see what you think.” He said, “O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast.”
103: And when they had both submitted and he put him down upon his forehead,
104: We called to him, “O Abraham,
105: You have fulfilled the vision.” Indeed, We thus reward the doers of good.
106: Indeed, this was the clear trial.
107: And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice,
108: And We left for him [favourable mention] among later generations:
109: “Peace upon Abraham.”
110: Indeed, We thus reward the doers of good.
The sacrifice was a trial for both Ibrahim and Ismail and they both readily agreed to submit their will to Allah. and Allah has given them an everlasting reward for this submission and steadfastness.
We should reflect on this. A Father sacrificing his son and a son accepting the will of Allah. When we sacrifice the animal, this too should be one of a higher amount. Don’t look to buy cheap. Look at what will hurt your wallet. Sacrifice that. Sacrifice it for your lord.
Qurbani is also know as Udhiya is Arabic. Linguistically, Qurbani relates to its Root ‘Q R B’ which means nearness. the purpose and attainment of sacrifice or Qurbani is drawing near to Allah. This act also displays that Muslims will and should sacrifice anything in the name of Allah if commanded. And this obedience and steadfastness achieves true submission.
The First Sacrifice in the History of Islam
There are narrations of Qurbani pre-dating the incident of Ibrahim, so it is well founded within our tradition. The sons of the Prophet Adam عليه السلام, Habil and Qabil both offered sacrifices to Allah, but only Habil’s sacrifice was accepted. This was because of Habil’s piety and righteousness whereas Qabil had ill-thoughts towards his brother and ill-intention of the sacrifice. Qabil’s intention was driven by arrogance and the envy of his brother.
‘And recite to them the story of Adam’s two sons, in truth, when they both offered a sacrifice (to Allah), and it was accepted from one of them but was not accepted from the other. Said (the latter), “I will surely kill you.” Said (the former), “Indeed, Allah only accepts from the righteous (who fear Him)’. Qur’an 5:27
It is not the blood that reaches God, but your obedience.
‘Indeed, my prayer, my rites of sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the worlds.’ Qu’ran 6:162
Furthermore, Qurbani meat is also shared with the poor and relatives. The idea is to bring people closer. Qurbani is not only a personal sacrifice and personal deed. But an act of acknowledging there are some who cannot afford to meat and the act of giving means you are supporting your Muslims brother and sisters. It also strengthens ties with your neighbours and relatives.
When is Qurbani 2020
Qurbani takes places after the Eid Salah on the morning of the 10th and ends on the sunset of the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah. This coincides with the end of Hajj also.
Qurbani 2020 will fall place on the 10th Dhul Hijjah, otherwise known as the day of Eid. The day of Eid is established by the starting of the month. This year it will either be Thursday 30th June 2020 or Friday 31st June 2020.
It is best to perform the Qurbani on the first day for more merit, followed by the second day and finally the third day (in reward).
Without a real need to say, please make sure the slaughter is performed according to halal guidelines.
Who is Qurbani deemed upon?
There are three conditions:
- They are an Adult Muslim
- of Sound Mind
- and meet the nisaab on the day.
An Adult is classed as someone who has reached the age of puberty. The Nisaab can either be based on the Gold or Silver rate.
- The nisab on the Gold standard is measured at 87.48g, 3.09oz or 7.5 thola which is £4037 approx
- The nisab on the Silver standard is measured at 612.36g, 21.6oz or 52.78 thola which is £350 approx
Most scholars argue that if we go by the Silver standard, more people will be eligible to give Qurbani meat, therefore more will go to the poor. Whereas others state the Gold standard is better to ensure that the actual wealthy give Qurbani.
If a person carries out Qurbani on behalf of a person on whom Qurbani is Wajib, without his permission and without his knowledge; this Qurbani will not be valid. If it is done with his permission or instruction, it is permissible.
What animals can be sacrificed?
Animals that are eligible for Qurbani are:
- Goats that are at least one years old
- Bulls, cows or buffalo that are at least two years old
- Sheep that are at least one years old
- Camels that are at least five years old
The animals can be from either gender, male or female but for the Qurbani to be accepted, they should have no injuries, disabilities, or an illness (i.e. healthy).
Amount to be sacrificed
There is a difference between the amount to be sacrificed depending on the animal. If we understand this by shares, then we can say a goat or sheep is one share, whereas larger cattle like cow, camel, buffalo or bull are 1/7 of a share.
Each person needs to donate 1/7th share.
If you have 7 family members, you can sacrifice one cow, taking 1 share each.
Who does the Qurbani meat go to?
The Qurbani meat should be distributed to three groups of people:
- The person who provided the animal
- The friends and relatives of the person who provided the animal
- The poor and the needy
The meat can go to both Muslims and Non Muslims.
In the UK and other countries where most people are not in poverty, people prefer to give Qurbani abroad where there is a dire need. In this case, all the meat is distributed among the poor.
Muslims should first look at their own communities and then donate outwards.
You can either sacrifice an animal yourself and then distribute it or you can nominate a charity to do it for you. You must ensure the charity will arrange for the Qurbani to be performed on one of the three days as well as using the amount donated towards the full expediture of sacrificing an animal. This may include logistical and other discbiusment costs.
Charities, unfortunately, will compete to provide the cheapest Qurbani option, for example displaying ‘From £20’ but do not be induced by this. If you have £5000 in savings, do not buy the £20 Qurbani. Instead let the amount hurt you, in this is a purity insha’Allah.
You can donate online or you can source trusted people in poor countries who will use 10% of donations in purchasing and slaughtering the animal.
Here’s a list of charities we are familiar with:
- Al-Mustafa Welfare
- SKT Welfare
- Ummah Welfare Trust
- Save the Mothers Trust (Charity of the Year 2019)
- Charity Right
- Green Crescent Aid
Eid and Hajj connection
During Hajj, the hujjaj must also sacrifice an animal. This also stems from what Ibrahim عليه السلام went through. These rites are similar but may differ slightly. Eid is for every Muslim whereas the rites of hajj are for the pilgrims.
What is Eid ul Adha?
Eid ul Adha is the celebration of the submission of the Prophet Ibrahim عليه السلام to Allah’s will in relation to the sacrifice he was commanded to do.
Against both his own wishes and the temptations of the Devil, the Prophet Ibrahim عليه السلام took his son Prophet Ismaeel عليه السلام to the top of Mount Arafat to sacrifice him to Allah. At the last moment, Allah performed a miracle, miraculously switching the boy with a ram. Prophet Ismaeel عليه السلام was stood beside his father, completely unharmed.
Eid is a celebration where Muslims look to refocus their own lives, reflecting on the sacrifice of Ibrahim.
Takbeer e Tashreek
The Takbeer e Tashreek should be recited after every fard salah, commencing from the Fajr of 9th Dhul Hijjah to after the Asr of the 13th of Dhul Hijjah.
It is obligatory for every Muslim to recite it at least once and sunnah to recite three times. This applies to both men and women, Men should recite loudly while women should recite silently.
What else do in Eid?
During Eid-ul-Adha, Muslims dress in their finest clothes, recite special Eid prayers in congregation and enjoy a feast with friends and family.
Additionally, many exchange gifts with those closest to them, varying from specially crafted items to monetary donations. One of the most important aspects of Eid ul Adha is spending quality time with family and loved ones, united by faith. Eid ul Adha is the celebration of this supreme act of submission to Allah (SWT), and Qurbani is the remembrance of the specific moment.
Sunnah of Eid ul Adha
- First and foremost Pray your Fajr
- Perform Ghusl with the intention of doing so for the Eid Salah
- Brush your teeth and wear perfume
- Look beautiful. Wear clothes that are new or at least your best and clean.
- Recite Takbir till you arrive at the Mosque – Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise).
- Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another.
- Perform the Eid Prayer – This is infact wajib
- Say Eid Mubarak to each other or wish well.
- Perform Qurbani
- Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on Eid al-Adha. If you are not offering a sacrifice then there is nothing wrong with eating before the prayer.
Rules relating to Qurbani according to Hanafi Fiqh
The following has been provided by www.seekerspath.co.uk
Who must give it?
Qurbani is Wajib (compulsory) upon every:
(4) who is not a traveller,
(5) who owns wealth which reaches the Nisab
(6) and who has reached the first Day of Eid-ul-Adhā
A wife who fulfils the above conditions must pay for herself but children do not have to. If a man gives Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his mature children then for it to count he must give it with their permission. Their Qurbani will not be valid if he gives it without their permission.
Girls and boys must give Qurbani if they fulfil the above conditions and if they show signs of maturity. Every person aged 15 must give Qurbani if the above conditions are met regardless of showing signs of maturity or not because at 15 they are classed as mature Islamically for commands and prohibitions of the Shariah.
The age for maturity is calculated in Islamic years. Bear in mind that Islamic lunar years are approximately 10 days shorter than Solar years and this must be taken into account.
Hence if for example Zayd turned 15 on 10th July then Islamically he would have been 15 approximately 150 days before this on 10th February. This is a rough estimation. We should instead make make a note of our Islāmic birthday and work out our age in Islāmic years by this.
What is to be given?
For Qurbani it is Wājib (compulsory) to sacrifice one goat or sheep, or a seventh of a camel or cow. One goat or sheep counts for one person’s obligation and one camel or cow counts for seven peoples’ obligation.
Hair and Nails
The Beloved Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said, “Whoever intends doing Qurbānī should avoid clipping his nails or cutting his hair for the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah.” [Sunan an-Nasā’ī 4362].
This is Mustahabb (recommended) and not Wājib (compulsory) for the one who will will be giving Qurbani so if someone does clip nails or cut hair there will not be any wrongdoing and the Qurbani will still be valid. After the Qurbani has been given one may clip nails and cut hair.
Who can have the Qurbani meat?
It is Mustahabb (recommended) though not Wājib (compulsory) to split one’s Qurbani into three parts and give one third to the poor as Sadaqah (charity), one third to one’s relatives and one third for oneself and to eat the meat oneself and give some to one’s wife and children. If one has a lot of children and a large family then all the meat can be kept for oneself and if one wishes it can give all be given as Sadaqah (charity). It is better to keep one part of it for oneself.
“Sayedat Aisha (RadiAllahuanhu) narrates that Rasul Allah said, “There is no dearer deed of Ibn Adam in the days of Qurbani than flowing the blood (doing Qurbani) and that animal will come with his horns, hairs, and hooves on the day of Qayamt. Thee blood of the Qurbani reaches the stage of acceptance before it reaches the floor.” (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)
More Misc Qurbani Rulings
The following has been added to include some Misc Ruling. They are based on the Hanafi basic text, Taleem-ul-Haq.