What is Qurbani and what are the rules?

What is Qurbani and what are the rules?

Qurbani 2020

What is Qurbani?

Qurbani (also known as Udhiyah) is the sacrifice of an animal during the festival Eid ul Adha. The significance of this relates to the event that took place during the time of Prophet Ibrahim عليه السلام. This is where, in a dream, he was commanded to sacrifice his son for Allah. As a faithful servant of Allah, he set out to sacrifice his beloved son. We must remember Ibrahim waited many years to finally have a son. He was 86 years old when his son was born so one can imagine the love he had for his son. And to now sacrifice him!?

Lets read about the verses of Qurbani in the Quran first. In Surah Saffat, Allah says,

102: And when he reached with him [the age of] exertion, he said, “O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I [must] sacrifice you, so see what you think.” He said, “O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast.”

103: And when they had both submitted and he put him down upon his forehead,

104: We called to him, “O Abraham,

105: You have fulfilled the vision.” Indeed, We thus reward the doers of good.

106: Indeed, this was the clear trial.

107: And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice,

108: And We left for him [favourable mention] among later generations:

109: “Peace upon Abraham.”

110: Indeed, We thus reward the doers of good.

The sacrifice was a trial for both Ibrahim and Ismail and they both readily agreed to submit their will to Allah. and Allah has given them an everlasting reward for this submission and steadfastness.

We should reflect on this. A Father sacrificing his son and a son accepting the will of Allah. When we sacrifice the animal, this too should be one of a higher amount. Don’t look to buy cheap. Look at what will hurt your wallet. Sacrifice that. Sacrifice it for your lord.

It is not their meat nor their blood, that reaches Allah: it is your piety that reaches Him [Surah Al Hajj 22:37]

Qurbani is also know as Udhiya is Arabic. Linguistically, Qurbani relates to its Root ‘Q R B’ which means nearness. the purpose and attainment of sacrifice or Qurbani is drawing near to Allah. This act also displays that Muslims will and should sacrifice anything in the name of Allah if commanded. And this obedience and steadfastness achieves true submission.

The First Sacrifice in the History of Islam

There are narrations of Qurbani pre-dating the incident of Ibrahim, so it is well founded within our tradition. The sons of the Prophet Adam عليه السلام, Habil and Qabil both offered sacrifices to Allah, but only Habil’s sacrifice was accepted. This was because of Habil’s piety and righteousness whereas Qabil had ill-thoughts towards his brother and ill-intention of the sacrifice. Qabil’s intention was driven by arrogance and the envy of his brother.

‘And recite to them the story of Adam’s two sons, in truth, when they both offered a sacrifice (to Allah), and it was accepted from one of them but was not accepted from the other. Said (the latter), “I will surely kill you.” Said (the former), “Indeed, Allah only accepts from the righteous (who fear Him)’. Qur’an 5:27

It is not the blood that reaches God, but your obedience.

‘Indeed, my prayer, my rites of sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the worlds.’ Qu’ran 6:162

Furthermore, Qurbani meat is also shared with the poor and relatives. The idea is to bring people closer. Qurbani is not only a personal sacrifice and personal deed. But an act of acknowledging there are some who cannot afford to meat and the act of giving means you are supporting your Muslims brother and sisters. It also strengthens ties with your neighbours and relatives.

When is Qurbani 2020

Qurbani takes places after the Eid Salah on the morning of the 10th and ends on the sunset of the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah. This coincides with the end of Hajj also.

Qurbani 2020 will fall place on the 10th Dhul Hijjah, otherwise known as the day of Eid. The day of Eid is established by the starting of the month. This year it will either be Thursday 30th June 2020 or Friday 31st June 2020.

It is best to perform the Qurbani on the first day for more merit, followed by the second day and finally the third day (in reward).

Without a real need to say, please make sure the slaughter is performed according to halal guidelines.

Who is Qurbani deemed upon?

There are three conditions:

  • They are an Adult Muslim
  • of Sound Mind
  • and meet the nisaab on the day.

An Adult is classed as someone who has reached the age of puberty. The Nisaab can either be based on the Gold or Silver rate.

  • The nisab on the Gold standard is measured at 87.48g, 3.09oz or 7.5 thola which is £4037 approx
  • The nisab on the Silver standard is measured at 612.36g, 21.6oz or 52.78 thola which is £350 approx

Most scholars argue that if we go by the Silver standard, more people will be eligible to give Qurbani meat, therefore more will go to the poor. Whereas others state the Gold standard is better to ensure that the actual wealthy give Qurbani.

If a person carries out Qurbani on behalf of a person on whom Qurbani is Wajib, without his permission and without his knowledge; this Qurbani will not be valid. If it is done with his permission or instruction, it is permissible.

What animals can be sacrificed?

Animals that are eligible for Qurbani are:

  • Goats that are at least one years old
  • Bulls, cows or buffalo that are at least two years old
  • Sheep that are at least one years old
  • Camels that are at least five years old

The animals can be from either gender, male or female but for the Qurbani to be accepted, they should have no injuries, disabilities, or an illness (i.e. healthy).

Amount to be sacrificed

There is a difference between the amount to be sacrificed depending on the animal. If we understand this by shares, then we can say a goat or sheep is one share, whereas larger cattle like cow, camel, buffalo or bull are 1/7 of a share.

Each person needs to donate 1/7th share.

If you have 7 family members, you can sacrifice one cow, taking 1 share each.

Who does the Qurbani meat go to?

The Qurbani meat should be distributed to three groups of people:

  • The person who provided the animal
  • The friends and relatives of the person who provided the animal
  • The poor and the needy

The meat can go to both Muslims and Non Muslims.

In the UK and other countries where most people are not in poverty, people prefer to give Qurbani abroad where there is a dire need. In this case, all the meat is distributed among the poor.

Muslims should first look at their own communities and then donate outwards.

Qurbani Donations

You can either sacrifice an animal yourself and then distribute it or you can nominate a charity to do it for you. You must ensure the charity will arrange for the Qurbani to be performed on one of the three days as well as using the amount donated towards the full expediture of sacrificing an animal. This may include logistical and other discbiusment costs.

Charities, unfortunately, will compete to provide the cheapest Qurbani option, for example displaying ‘From £20’ but do not be induced by this. If you have £5000 in savings, do not buy the £20 Qurbani. Instead let the amount hurt you, in this is a purity insha’Allah.

You can donate online or you can source trusted people in poor countries who will use 10% of donations in purchasing and slaughtering the animal.

Here’s a list of charities we are familiar with:

Eid and Hajj connection

During Hajj, the hujjaj must also sacrifice an animal. This also stems from what Ibrahim عليه السلام went through. These rites are similar but may differ slightly. Eid is for every Muslim whereas the rites of hajj are for the pilgrims.

What is Eid ul Adha?

Eid ul Adha is the celebration of the submission of the Prophet Ibrahim عليه السلام to Allah’s will in relation to the sacrifice he was commanded to do.

Against both his own wishes and the temptations of the Devil, the Prophet Ibrahim عليه السلام took his son Prophet Ismaeel عليه السلام to the top of Mount Arafat to sacrifice him to Allah. At the last moment, Allah performed a miracle, miraculously switching the boy with a ram. Prophet Ismaeel عليه السلام was stood beside his father, completely unharmed.

Eid is a celebration where Muslims look to refocus their own lives, reflecting on the sacrifice of Ibrahim.

Takbeer e Tashreek

The Takbeer e Tashreek should be recited after every fard salah, commencing from the Fajr of 9th Dhul Hijjah to after the Asr of the 13th of Dhul Hijjah.

It is obligatory for every Muslim to recite it at least once and sunnah to recite three times. This applies to both men and women, Men should recite loudly while women should recite silently.

What else do in Eid?

During Eid-ul-Adha, Muslims dress in their finest clothes, recite special Eid prayers in congregation and enjoy a feast with friends and family.

Additionally, many exchange gifts with those closest to them, varying from specially crafted items to monetary donations. One of the most important aspects of Eid ul Adha is spending quality time with family and loved ones, united by faith. Eid ul Adha is the celebration of this supreme act of submission to Allah (SWT), and Qurbani is the remembrance of the specific moment.

Sunnah of Eid ul Adha

  1. First and foremost Pray your Fajr
  2. Perform Ghusl with the intention of doing so for the Eid Salah
  3. Brush your teeth and wear perfume
  4. Look beautiful. Wear clothes that are new or at least your best and clean.
  5. Recite Takbir till you arrive at the Mosque – Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa Allaahu akbar, Allaah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise).
  6. Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another.
  7. Perform the Eid Prayer – This is infact wajib
  8. Say Eid Mubarak to each other or wish well.
  9. Perform Qurbani
  10. Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on Eid al-Adha. If you are not offering a sacrifice then there is nothing wrong with eating before the prayer.

Rules relating to Qurbani according to Hanafi Fiqh

The following has been provided by www.seekerspath.co.uk

Who must give it?

Qurbani is Wajib (compulsory) upon every:
(1) Sane,
(2) Mature,
(3) Muslim,
(4) who is not a traveller,
(5) who owns wealth which reaches the Nisab
(6) and who has reached the first Day of Eid-ul-Adhā

A wife who fulfils the above conditions must pay for herself but children do not have to. If a man gives Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his mature children then for it to count he must give it with their permission. Their Qurbani will not be valid if he gives it without their permission.

Girls and boys must give Qurbani if they fulfil the above conditions and if they show signs of maturity. Every person aged 15 must give Qurbani if the above conditions are met regardless of showing signs of maturity or not because at 15 they are classed as mature Islamically for commands and prohibitions of the Shariah.

The age for maturity is calculated in Islamic years. Bear in mind that Islamic lunar years are approximately 10 days shorter than Solar years and this must be taken into account.

Hence if for example Zayd turned 15 on 10th July then Islamically he would have been 15 approximately 150 days before this on 10th February. This is a rough estimation. We should instead make make a note of our Islāmic birthday and work out our age in Islāmic years by this.

What is to be given?

For Qurbani it is Wājib (compulsory) to sacrifice one goat or sheep, or a seventh of a camel or cow. One goat or sheep counts for one person’s obligation and one camel or cow counts for seven peoples’ obligation.

Hair and Nails

The Beloved Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said, “Whoever intends doing Qurbānī should avoid clipping his nails or cutting his hair for the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah.” [Sunan an-Nasā’ī 4362].

This is Mustahabb (recommended) and not Wājib (compulsory) for the one who will will be giving Qurbani so if someone does clip nails or cut hair there will not be any wrongdoing and the Qurbani will still be valid. After the Qurbani has been given one may clip nails and cut hair.

Who can have the Qurbani meat?

It is Mustahabb (recommended) though not Wājib (compulsory) to split one’s Qurbani into three parts and give one third to the poor as Sadaqah (charity), one third to one’s relatives and one third for oneself and to eat the meat oneself and give some to one’s wife and children. If one has a lot of children and a large family then all the meat can be kept for oneself and if one wishes it can give all be given as Sadaqah (charity). It is better to keep one part of it for oneself.

“Sayedat Aisha (RadiAllahuanhu) narrates that Rasul Allah said, “There is no dearer deed of Ibn Adam in the days of Qurbani than flowing the blood (doing Qurbani) and that animal will come with his horns, hairs, and hooves on the day of Qayamt. Thee blood of the Qurbani reaches the stage of acceptance before it reaches the floor.” (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)

More Misc Qurbani Rulings

The following has been added to include some Misc Ruling. They are based on the Hanafi basic text, Taleem-ul-Haq.

On whom it is Wajib

Qurbani is Wajib on all Muslims (male and female) who are sane, Baaligh (have reached the age of puberty) and are the possessors of minimum Zakatable wealth (Nisab). It is not necessary that the ownership of such wealth be for a full year.

Qurbani is Waajib on a man for himself only, not for his wife and children. However, it is his duty to see that his wife’s and grown-up (Baaligh) children’s. Qurbani are made if they are possessors of Nisaab. If he makes their Qurbani out of his wealth with their permission, their Qurbani will be valid.

Qurbani is not Wajib on poor people (who do not possess wealth equal to Nisab) nor on travellers (Mussaafirs) nor on minors. If a minor reaches the age of puberty or a Musaafir becomes a Muqeem, i.e. by completing his journey or intending to stay in one place for 15 days or more, before the sunset of the 12th Zil Hijjah, then Qurbani is Wajib on them.

Qurbani on behalf of a deceased person is Wajib if he had made a request that it should be undertaken from his wealth, provided the cost does not exceed one third of his net estate.

Qurbani is Wajib on a person who makes a Vow, i.e. if a certain work of mine is carried out I will make Qurbani, then Qurbani becomes Wajib on him when that task is accomplished. This Qurbani must be carried out in the days of Qurbani, unless it is understood that merely slaughtering an animal on ANY DAY is referred to as Qurbani, and this had been the intention of the person who made a vow, then it will be permissible for him to sacrifice an animal on any day.

If a poor person buys an animal during the days of Qurbani, with the intention of Qurbani then it becomes Wajib upon him to sacrifice this animal. However, if this animal dies or gets lost, Qurbani will not remain Wajib on him. It will not be necessary for him to buy another animal. If he buys another animal and thereafter the first one is found, it becomes Wajib upon him to sacrifice both animals.

Where a person on whom Qurbani is Wajib, purchased an animal for sacrifice., thereafter this animal was lost, stolen or died. In such case it will be Wajib to sacrifice another animal in its place. If, after purchasing the second animal the first one is found, the sacrificing of only one animal is Wajib upon him. If he sacrifices the second animal then it is preferable to give as charity the difference in price between the two animals, if there be any, difference e.g. the 1st animal had cost him £100, and the second had cost him £80. He should now give £20 as charity. However, it is preferable to make Qurbani of both the animals.

A person, on whom Qurbani is Wajib, bought an animal for sacrifice. Due to some reason he did not slaughter it on the fixed days of Qurbani. It is now compulsory upon him to give the animal away, alive, as charity. If he did not purchase the animal and Qurbani was Wajib on him, it is obligatory for him to give as charity, the value of an animal.

If a person, on whom Qurbani was Wajib, failed to carry it out for a number of years, should give the value of that number of animals as charity. Slaughtering of that amount of animals during the days of Qurbani will not compensate for the missed Qurbani, but will instead be regarded as voluntary Qurbani.

If a person carries out Qurbani on behalf of a person on whom Qurbani is Wajib, without his permission and without his knowing; this Qurbani will not be valid. If it is done with his permission or instruction, it is permissible.

It is Mustahab (preferable) for those intending to make Qurbani not to cut their hair or clip their nails from the time the moon for Dhul Hijjah is sighted until after Qurbani.

Qurbani is an Ibaadat that has to be carried out every year on whom it is Wajib. Being a Hajee is not a condition for Qurbani becoming Wajib.

Time for the Qurbani

The time for Qurbani begins after Eid Salah on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah and ends at the setting of the sun on the 12th of Dhul Hijjah.

It is better to make Qurbani on the first day, then the second day and lastly the third day.

Qurbani is allowed during the two intervening nights but it is preferable during the day because of the possibility of not slaughtering correctly.

People living in remote village areas where Eid Salah is not performed, may slaughter after Fajr time (Subah Saadiq-early dawn) has set in on the morning of the 10th Zil Hijjah.

If a person residing in a town (where Eid Salah is performed) sends his animal to the village (where Eid Salah is not performed), it is permissible that his animal be slaughtered before the Eid Salah.

If a doubt occurs as to whether it is the 12th or the 13th, it is Mustahab (preferable) to give away all the meat in sacrifice after slaughtering the animal.

If an animal bought for Qurbani was not slaughtered during these days, it must be given away alive, as charity.

The 10th, 11th and the 12th are known as Ayyamun Nahr (the days of slaughtering).

Conditions of the Animal

Qurbani can be made of goats, sheep, cattle and camels; male or female: No other type of animal is allowed for Qurbani.

  • Castrated animals may be used for Qurbani. This type of animal is preferable.
  • Qurbani calf barren animals is also allowed.
  • Goats, sheep have to be at least one year old. However, very healthy sheep that looks one year old may also be used.
  • Cattle must be at least two years old.
  • Camels must be at least five years old.

Sheep and goats count as one share per animal. Cattle and camels are divided into seven shares per animal, i.e. the Qurbani of seven persons is allowed with one cow or one camel.

If a person sacrifices one cow or camel (without sharing with others), his Qurbani will be accomplished by the whole animal. If the sacrifice is of several animals instead of one, his Wajib Qurbani will be accomplished by one animal and the other animals will be counted as Nafil (voluntary) Qurbani.

If less than seven persons make Qurbani of a cow or camel, it is permissible. If any person’s share is less than one seventh, the Qurbani of all the persons will not be valid.

If more than seven persons share one Cow or camel, the Qurbani of none of them will be valid.

When more than one person makes Qurbani of a cow or camel, it is a condition for the validity of the Qurbani of all the persons that each one of them have the Niyyat of Qurbani or Aqeeqa. If any one of them has an intention of merely eating meat, the Qurbani of all the share-holders will not be valid.

When buying a cow or camel, one made an intention that he will share this animal with others. After purchasing the animal he asks others to share with him. This Qurbani will be proper.

At the time of purchasing a cow or camel one makes the intention that he will not share this animal with others. It is now, not good for him, share that animal with others, but if he does, the Qurbani is the share-holders will be valid. Qurbani will also be valid if he is a person upon whom Qurhani is Waajib. i.e. a rich person. If he is a poor person then he will have to make Qurbani for that number of shares that he has given to others. If the days of Qurbani have passed, then he must give the value of that amount of shares to the poor.

The animals chosen for Qurbani should be healthy, free from faults and defects.

Animals with Defects

An animal that was born without horns or the horns had broken off from the middle, can be used for Qurbani. If the horn has broken off from the root, it cannot be used for Qurbani.

Those animals that are totally blind or have lost one-third or more of their eyesight, or one-third or more of the tail is cut, are not allowed for Qurbani.

An animal which limps and walks on three legs and cannot put the injured (4th) leg onto the ground, or that it can put the injured leg onto the ground, but is unable to walk on it, cannot be used for Qurbani. However, if it is unable to walk on it, but can still take support from it, then Qurbani is allowed with it, even though it is limping.

Animals having no teeth at all cannot he used for Qurbani. If an animal has lost some teeth only, and has most of the teeth, Qurbani is permissible with it. If most of the teeth are lost, Qurbani is not proper with that animal.

Animals born without ears cannot be used for Qurbani. Animals with very small ears can be used for Qurbani.

Animals that are so thin and weak or sick that they are unable to walk to the place for slaughtering, cannot be used for Qurbani.

If an animal sustains an injury whilst slaughtering, e.g. a leg breaks or an ear is cut, the Qurbani of such an animal will be valid.

An animal was bought in a healthy and perfect state. After purchasing it, an accident occurred which rendered the animal unfit for Qurbani. In such a case, if the purchaser is not wealthy, it will be permissible to offer the same animal for Qurbani. If the purchaser is wealthy, then it is compulsory upon him to obtain another animal in place of the injured animal.

If an animal bought for Qurbani gives birth (before being slaughtered), then this newly born animal should also be slaughtered.

The Meat and Skin of the Animal

It is allowed for a person who performs Qurbani (Wajib or Nafil), to either eat the flesh or to give it to whomsoever he pleases, rich or poor, Muslim or non-Muslim.

It is preferable that the meat be divided into three parts. One part for the home, one part for relatives and friends and one part for the poor and needy.

The meat or skin cannot be given to an employee or to a butcher in payment of his labour. It may be given to them as a gift.

The skin of the Qurbani could be kept for one’s personal use or could be given to anybody else for their personal use. It could be used as a water bag, Musalla, etc.

The Qurbani skin cannot be given in lieu of any type of services. Thus, the skin cannot be given to an Imaam or Mu’azzin in lieu of their services.

If the skin is sold, the amount received for it cannot be used by oneself. It Is Waajib to give it away as Sadaqah (charity) to the poor and needy.

It is not permissible for one to eat the meat of the following types of Qurbani:

  • Qurbani that is made as a Kaffaarah for a Jinaayat (error) committed during Haj.
  • Qurbani performed for a deceased person due to his request
  • Qurbani performed due to a vow one had made.

The meat of the above-mentioned types of Qurbani has to be distributed to the poor and needy ONLY.

The meat of Nafil Qurbani which one had made for the deceased, can be eaten by all, similar to one’s own Qurbani

If more than one person participates in the Qurbani of an animal that has seven shares and each share-holder requests for his share of the meat, then it is necessary that the meat be distributed equally, by weight. If one person’s share is more than the others, it will not be permissible as this will become ribaa (usury).

If one person’s share of meat is less than the others, but with the meat, he is given the skin or the head or legs of the animal, it will now be permissible. Great care should be taken in order to distribute the meat EQUALLY.

Slaughter of the Animal

It is Mustahab (preferable) that the person to whom the Qurbani animal belongs, slaughters it personally, provided he is able to slaughter (make Zabah) properly.

If the owner is unable to slaughter, it is better to delegate the Zabah to another Muslim who is acquainted with the requirements of proper Islamic Zabah.

A Muslim woman, who knows how to make Zabah, is also permitted to slaughter.

If the Zabah has been delegated, it is desirable that the person for whom the Qurbani is being made, be present.

The Islamic Zabah requires that the throat, the external jugular veins and the wind-pipe of the animal to be swiftly and clearly severed with a very sharp knife, together with the recital of BISMILLAHI AILAHU AKBAR.

If only two of the passages and veins are cut, the Zabah will be incorrect. Yes, if any three of the four are cut, the zabah will be in order.

It is Mustahab (preferable) to face the Qibla while slaughtering.

It is preferable to sharpen the knife before slaughtering in order to ease the suffering of the animal. After slaughtering, the animal should not be skinned or cut up into pieces before it turns completely cold. An animal should not be slaughtered in the presence of another animal.

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